A New Perspective on National Architecture: 2nd. National Architecture Movement
 


TURKISH ARCHITECTURE IN THE REPUBLICAN PERIOD   A New Perspective on National Architecture: 2nd. National Architecture Movement

Followıng a period of approxımately ten years (1930-1940) during which attempts were made to keep pace with positive trends in world architecture, an reaction against the hegemony of foreign architects, which had been going on since 1927, caused a trend towards a new national architecture to begin. This return to tradition was influenced by the Fascist movement in Italy and the rise of National Socialism in Germany with their totalitarian ideas The new trend, which tended towards romanticism and aimed to create a new national architecture, influenced architecture in Turkey between 1935 and 1950. The movement, first under the name of the National Architecture, and later called the Second National Architecture, aimed at finding and using traditional features in its architectural style. Sedad H. Eldem was influential in creating a rational basis for this style through his work at the Academy of Fine Arts in establishing a seminar under the name of the National Architect Seminar which devoted itself to the sudy of traditional civil architecture in Turkey. The separatist understanding of the totalitarian regimes of the time which took over in countries such as Russia, Germany and Italy had a role in these nationalistic ideas. Moreover, the architects Kemalettin Bey and Vedat Bey were a source of new strength to this movement which had never been entirely extinguished. However, in this new phase, the preference was for the use of simple features from the domestic architecture of the past rather than the religious type of detail which had been used by the First National Architecture. Relying on producing the essence of these, importance was giving to symmetry, stone faced facades, and a monumental effect. This style lasted until the 1950's. It ended when it became necessary to keep up with the new developments and requirements in technology, in other words, with contemporary ideas about architecture. Buildings such as the Turkish Pavilion (Sedad H. Eldem), at the 1939 International Exposition in New York, Ataturk's Mausoleum (Emin Onat, Orhan Arda, competition winners, 1942) Istanbul University Faculty of Science and the Faculty of Lliterature buildings and Ankara University Science Faculty. (E. Onat, Sedad H. Eldem, 1943), the Çanakkale Victory Monument (Dogan Erginbas, by competition 1944), Istanbul Radio Headquarters (Ismail Utkular, Dogan Erginbas, Ömer Günay, by competition1945), Şişli Mosque(Vasfi Egeli, 1945-49), and the Istanbul Sport and Exhibition Complex are works from this period which attract attention.
The decline of the Second National Architecture Movement came with the 3rd competition in 1948 for the Istanbul Courts of Justice in which the rational approach of the joint design of S. H. Eldem and E. Onat won first prize. It had completely ended by the time the competition for the Istanbul Municipality Headquarters was held in 1952
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Grand National Assembly of Turkey 1938- 1960 Bakanliklar- Ankara Architectural design: Clemens Holzmeister



Photo:Dogan Hasol
House in Kavaklidere 1937 Kavaklidere- Ankara Architectural design: A. Sabri, Emin Onat



Photo:Dogan Hasol
House in Kavaklidere Floor plans



Source: Inci Aslanoglu, "Erken Cumhuriyet Donemi Mimarligi."
Istanbul University, Faculty of Science and Letters 1942- 1944 Beyazıit- Istanbul Architectural design: Sedad Hakkı Eldem

Photo:Dogan Hasol
Istanbul University, Faculty of Science and Letters Plan



















Source:"Sedad Eldem Architect in Turkey"
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